biological preservative

biological preservatives

An effective concentrated microbiological preparation intended for the high-quality conservation of haylage and silage from all types of herbs, corn, beet pulp, tops, crushed grain with high humidity and coarse crop residues.

The preparation was developed by the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine named after Zabolotnogo, was widely used in the technology of harvesting high-quality canned food in Ukraine.

It is actively used for more than 10 years in wide production.

Sourdough Litosil - is a preparation containing live cultures of several strains of beneficial lactic acid bacteria. Litosil Lithosil is a homogeneous, powder-dry mass containing in 1 g to 50-55 billion viable cells of lactic acid bacteria.

A synergistic, optimally selected association of two types of lactobacilli and streptococcus lactate, as well as a complex of specific cellulase and pectinase enzymes, which provides lactic acid bacteria with monosaccharides during the hydrolysis of canned coarse fiber and feed materials.

Easily and completely soluble in water and plant juices.

Sourdough Litosil plus – enhanced formula - synergistically, successfully selected association of viable cells of two types of lactobacilli and lactic streptococcus, as well as a complex of highly active specific enzymes of cellulase, β-glucanase and pectinase, which provide lactic acid bacteria with monosaccharides during the hydrolysis of raw fiber and canned fiber.

A homogeneous, powder-dry mass containing 1g to 85-90 billion viable cells of lactic acid bacteria.

It is recommended to use in conditions of "extreme" forage procurement (at low or high humidity of raw materials, under adverse weather conditions, in the short term laying of raw materials for storage, etc.).

The components of biological preservatives are representatives of the beneficial microflora of the digestive tract of farm animals, therefore, the resulting canned food has probiotic properties, is environmentally friendly, does not contain chemical preservatives and their decay products.

preservative characteristics

The use of starter cultures Litosil and Litosil plus due to the directed regulation of lactic acid fermentation contributes to the high preservation of feed nutrients, uniform distribution of lactic acid in the bulk of the mass, inhibition of butyric acid, acetic acid, putrefactive bacteria and fungi, which negatively affect the animal organism as a whole and feed in the process of its storage and use.

The quality of the natural fermentation in the silo largely depends on the amount and type of lactic acid bacteria present in the green mass during the laying of the silo. In order not to depend on bacteria that exist in the natural environment (epiphytic microflora), Litosil ferment was developed to guarantee a better conservation process.

Lactic acid bacteria requirements

rapid growth and dominance over epiphytic microflora;
homoenzyme, that is, the production of lactic acid from available water-soluble carbohydrates;
resistance to acidic environment, at least at pH 4.0-4.5;
neutral to organic acids;
ability to grow over a wide temperature range.

The use of the preparation Litosil and Litosil plus provides quick mass acidification, conservation, due to the accumulation of beneficial lactic acid, and the suppression of undesirable microbiological processes.

Silage ripening speed with preservatives

It was studied that for the dominance of lactic acid bacteria in the starter cultures, their total number should be at least 100,000 bacteria per gram of silage. However, the relative number of bacteria of different species in the product and their enzymatic ability and stability are no less important.

Most biological silage additives contain at least two types of lactic acid bacteria:

Streptococcus, acts as a seed to quickly lower the pH to 5.0;
Lactobacillus, increasing acidity to a stable pH of 3.8-4.2.

The starter cultures made at the microbiological synthesis plant «Enzim» in Ladyzhin contain not two, but three types of lactic acid bacteria, which are natural representatives of the human and animal normoflora, which distinguishes Litosil and Litosil plus from other starter cultures.

Lactic streptococci are the most common representatives of lactobacilli. They are homoenzymatic, that is, they ferment more than 96% of sugar into lactic acid and only a small part of it into acetic acid and alcohol. The optimum development temperature is 28-32°C, the maximum is 40-43°C, the minimum is 10°C and sometimes even slightly lower.

Bacterial composition of the preservative Litosil

The strain Enterococcus faecium – is the fastest growing component of the starter culture. The culture is an optional anaerobic, actively supports the conservation process and is able to function in the presence and without access of oxygen. Already after 20-30 minutes. under optimal development conditions, the number of bacteria triples. Quickly reduces the pH of the mass. Culture is an antagonist of a number of common putrefactive, pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.

The strain Lactobacillus plantarum has a higher ability to reproduce and the ability to create predominantly lactic acid in a shorter time, has more pronounced antagonistic properties against putrefactive bacteria. The strain is effective for the silage of various herbs, including goatberry, team hedgehogs and a mixture of alfalfa and cereals, resulting in a high-quality silo.

The strain Lactobacillus salivarius – unique microorganisms that work at a wide range of temperatures and pH, ferment many carbohydrates (rhamnose, galactose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, melibiosis, sorbitol, sucrose, raffinose, trehalose), is a universal producer of lactic acid. The temperature limits of high activity are 5-45°C. Homoenzymatic fermentation. It provides a rapid decrease in pH under all weather conditions.

A complex of specific enzymes of the hydrolase class breaks down cellulose (fiber), β-glucans and pectin - the polysaccharide components of plant materials with the formation of glucose monosaccharide or celobiose disaccharide and thus provide lactic acid bacteria with an additional nutrition source.


The introduction of starter cultures allows you to lay the plant mass of any humidity in rainy weather, and the increased humidity of the raw materials will allow more even distribution of lactic acid bacteria in the thickness of the silage or hay mass. The use of preparations Litosil and Litosil plus will reduce the ripening time of the canned mass and guarantee the receipt of haylage and silage of high quality.

Dose and order of use

The preparation is added to the crushed plant mass when it is directly placed in any type of storage at the rate of 2-4 g per 1 ton of raw material. In terms of lactobacilli, this amounts to 100-200 billion per 1 ton of raw materials for Litosil sourdough and 180-360 billion per 1 ton of raw materials for Litosil plus sourdough.

Application technology (per 100 tons of raw materials)

1st stage - preparation of a sample of the preparation. 200 g of Litosil or Litosil plus sourdough is weighed per 100 tons of silage, and 400 g of sourdough per 100 tons of hay mass.

2nd stage - preparation of the working solution. A preservative is poured into the container, which contains the quantity of green mass necessary for processing a given amount of non-chlorinated water, while stirring. The resulting working solution is introduced into the silage by the method of irrigation as it enters the storage (pit) at the rate of 10 liters per 3 tons of the laid raw material, or during mowing using an applicator.

Attention! The activity of lactic acid bacteria, both in the mother liquor and in the working solution, is guaranteed to be stored no more than 4 hours after dissolving in water, so it is advisable to use each portion of the prepared working solution no later than 4 hours after the interaction of the starter with water, since over time, the activity of the preparation begins to gradually decrease.

In order to ensure that the mother liquor is guaranteed to remain for a day, it is recommended to add 0.25-0.3 l of molasses, sugar syrup, or glucose to it and mix thoroughly. Lactic acid bacteria will have a nutrient medium for their life and start to multiply, and the shelf life of the preparation solution will increase due to this.

When siloing plants that are easy to silage (corn in the phase of milk-wax ripeness of grain), at normal humidity, a dose of 2 g per 1 ton of raw material is completely sufficient.

For hay grass and leguminous raw materials and plants that are difficult to silage, as well as in case of insufficient sugar concentration in the hay or silage, the starter culture is introduced at a dose of 4 g per ton.

Applicator starter culture

The applicator is set for water consumption of 3-3.5 liters per 1 ton of plant mass. If this is not possible, then the calculation of the preparation is already carried out on the set amount of water. For instance. For processing 1 ton of haylage, silage or wet grain, the plant consumes 1 liter of water. The total amount of water in the installation is 250 liters. Accordingly, this amount of water is sufficient to process 250 tons of mass. The amount of the preparation is 250 x 4 = 1000 g. That is, 250 g of water should contain 1000 g of Litosil sourdough.

Pre-prepare the mother liquor of the preparation. For this, 1 kg of the preparation is dissolved in 4-5 liters of water (water temperature - 25-30°C). To accelerate the revitalization of bacteria and to activate their vital functions, 250-300 ml of molasses, glucose or sugar syrup can be added to the mother liquor, mix well and let stand for 30-40 minutes. in a place protected from direct sunlight. A sign of the readiness of the preparation for use is the presence of light foam on the surface of the mother liquor. The mother liquor is once again well mixed and poured into the sprayer tank.

The product complies with all sanitary and hygienic standards, does not require protective equipment when working with it, is non-toxic and does not cause environmental pollution.


The antagonistic effect of lactic acid bacteria on putrefactive microflora provides better protein preservation (by 10-15%), helps to reduce dry matter losses by 2-8 times and increase its digestibility by 5-10%, better preservation of B and C vitamins, increase vitamin biosynthesis B12, the quality of canned food is improved by the composition of organic acids and amino acids, food waste in the surface layers is reduced by 3-5 times.

Food prepared with sourdough acquires probiotic properties, is better eaten by animals and has a positive effect on their performance. When feeding silage, which was prepared with sourdough, the average daily increase in live weight of young animals increases by 6-12%, milk yield by 5-7%, the fat content in milk - by 0.1%, the acidity of milk decreases (by 0.1°T )

The results of the bookmark silo preservative, %

The productive effect of silage with a preservative, %

The effectiveness of the starter cultures Litosil and Litosil plus

Inhibition of the development of epiphytic microflora.

Enhanced lactic acid production.

Acetic acid reduction and complete suppression of butyric acid synthesis.

Lower silage temperatures and energy losses in the form of heat.

Microbial breakdown of fiber, increased digestibility of feed nutrients.

Silage nutrition enhancement.

Decrease in waste of nutrients to a level less than 10%.

Speeding up silage maturation.


98% of the silage and haylage planted on farms had quality classes 1 and 2. 2% of the silo, which was rated "unsatisfactory", was laid with a gross violation of technology, without proper ramming.

Due to the fact that the cultures used are homoenzymatic, no loss of dry matter and energy occurred.

The time of maturation of silage and silage has decreased. In this regard, the storage of vitamins of groups B and C improved. At the same time, vitamins of group B accumulated during the life of lactobacilli.

The ratio of lactic and acetic acid was normal. The silo was green and had a pleasant grassy or fruity odor. Silage pH 4.5 and below.

When laying silage and silage with lactic acid starter cultures and properly tamping, the thickness of the layer that is ejected when the trench is opened is significantly reduced.

Quality requirements for corn silos (according to GOST 23638-90)

index norm for class leaven silo
Litosil / Litosil plus
Dry matter, % 25 23 21 27-31
Silage pH 3,8-4,3 3,8-4,5 3,85-4,25
Mass fraction of lactic acid, % 55 50 40 42-59
Mass fraction of butyric acid, % 0,1 0,2 0,3 0

The best results of the use of the preparation Litosil are recorded when organizing the harvesting of canned food (haylage, silage) in the early phases of plant vegetation in the presence of excessively moist raw materials. This allows you to position Litosil as a preservative for the so-called wet silage.

Against the background of the application of the starter culture under consideration, grass mowing for haylage or silage can begin at a humidity of 78-80%. Withering the mass to a moisture content of 60-65% will be enough to start the process of laying the mass in silage for storage. Siloing can begin with the application of such a starter culture and at a moisture content of 75-78% when mowing directly.

The main producer of the composition of the starter cultures Litosil and Litosil plus is lactic acid, the concentration of which, after application of the preservative, significantly increases after 5-6 hours from the start of application. Within 1 day after applying the preservative, the resulting lactic acid almost completely stops acetic and butyric acid fermentation, inhibits the activity of yeast and mold, rickettsia and clostridia.

It is thanks to this ability that the starter culture is introduced not only into the silage, but also from the hay mass. In a relatively high humid environment at a temperature of 35-37°C, the enzymes that make up the Litosil starter culture actively break down non-starch structures of plant cells with the formation of a sufficient amount of simple carbohydrates suitable as an energy source for lactic acid microflora. This factor enhances the effect in any composition of plant raw materials, and the rapid increase in the concentration of lactic acid does not allow conserved raw materials to warm up above 38°C.

It is proved that against the background of the use of starter cultures of Litosil and Litosil plus, due to the force indicated above, an increase in the concentration of lactic acid, we obtain a well-pronounced effect of cold, high-moisture preservation. Silo and haylage remains uniformly colored in green, has a pleasant smell of bread (silage) or the smell of pickled vegetables (haylage).

Litosil and Litosil plus actively resist aerobic spoilage and secondary fermentation during opening and selection of feed from the pits frontally.

The quality of herbal silos when using various preservatives

index without preservative lactic acid
Colordark brownlight greenlight green
Smellpersistent, unpleasantnice fruitnice bread
Humidity, %78,378,177,8
Ammonia, mg/%3,923,533,21
Total count acid, %
v.h. milk, %
vinegar, %
oil, %
Correl. acid.%, %47/44/967/29/4 71/29/0
Keep dry things, %
exchange energy, MJ



Digested dry item, % ST61,962,866,3

The data indicate that preserving the grass silage with Litosil sourdough of the early stage of plant vegetation provided a high-quality canned product with good organoleptics, a low concentration of ammonia nitrogen and a better ratio of fermentation acids compared to other options.

The preparations are produced according to TU U 15.7-32813696-009: 2007 in the form of a powder based on readily soluble carbohydrates and are guaranteed to retain their properties for 6 months from the date of production. Sourdough Litosil and Litosil plus are packaged and hermetically sealed in packages of 1 and 5 kg, in bags of 20 kg or in plastic buckets of 1, 2, 5 and 10 kg.

The starter cultures are completely safe for the processing personnel, since they are a useful form of bacteria and do not contain toxins and components with an unpleasant odor, are not chemically aggressive and do not corrode the equipment used for their application.

Benefits of using biological preservatives Litosil and Litosil plus

Getting feed 1 and 2 quality classes.

Control of pathogenic microflora.

Preserving the nutritional value of feed.

Speeding up feed maturation.

The optimal ratio of organic acids.

Reduced feed withdrawal in surface layers.

Improving the quantitative and qualitative indicators of milk productivity.

Increased productivity of young fattening.


The plant «Enzim» is the oldest producer of microbial biological preparations in Ukraine for agriculture, animal husbandry and pharmaceuticals.

We pay special attention to the quality control of our products (integrated quality management systems ISO 9001 and ISO 22000 are introduced at the factory).

Ukraine, 24321,
Vinnitsa region, Ladijin, Khlebozavodskaya, 2

Ukraine, 21018,
Vinnitsa, Hoholia str, 30

Ukraine, 01133,
Kiev, 36D, Konovaltsa str.

+380 (44) 499-88-01
+380 (67) 582-33-22
+380 (95) 582-33-22